In this anthology, twelve papers including six authors' from international scholarly community cover two main aspects of humanity's learning history in the West. The first six of them focus on how to learn, and the rest explore what to learn. This is just a convenient categorization, because we're arguing that each of the six attends to one aspect of learning. It's still possible that each may be related to others in one way or another. Our goal is to give readers a broader perspective on how the early European people learned important things of life, such as the use of science, the function of love, politics, marriage, and ideology.